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Preclinical (DMPK) studies

In Vitro ADME

    • Aqueous solubility and stability of the compounds at different pH, Stability of the compounds at ambient temperature, 2-8/-20°C
      Short term and long-term stability of the compound in biological matrices(plasma/serum) Metabolic stability studies using cellular (hepatocytes from rat, mouse, human etc) and sub cellular fractions, metabolic stability studies recombinant CYP isoforms such as CYP3A4, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP1A2
    • Cell permeability assays – PAMPA, MDCK, and CaCo-2
    • Plasma/serum protein binding by ultrafiltration / equilibrium dialysis technique

In-Vivo DMPK services

    • Pre-formulation development
    • Absolute Bioavailability studies
    • Single, Multiple and cassette dosing
    • Ascending dose PK in rodents
    • PK studies in cannulated and non-cannulated rodents

In vivo models

    • Inflammatory pain: CFA, Carrageenan, Capsaicin, Formalin models, collagen-induced arthritis
    • IBD: DSS induced colitis in mice, TNBS induced colitis in rats
    • Respiratory: Rodent models of LPS-induced neutrophilia and ovalbumin induced eosinophilia
    • Cytokine Release Models: Mouse models of LPS induced
    • TNF α and IL-1 release, rat model of ATP activated IL-1β release
    • Acute and Chronic OGTT, IPGTT models (glucose & insulin)
      DIO mouse model (pair fed studies)
    • Acute model for GLP-1 induced Incretin secretion & endocrine secretion (PYY / CCK)
    • Acute model for Malonyl CoA lowering


Skanda conducts regular preclinical PK studies and can customize based on clients’ requirements.

Species used – Rat, Mice, Rabbit, Guinea Pig, Hamster, Nude mice, Swine

    • Typical animal PK study by various routes viz oral, intravenous (bolus and infusion), intraperitoneal, sub-cutaneous
    • Single, multiple and cassette dosing of compound(s)
    • Dose escalation study (dose linearity and range finding)
    • Tissue distribution study (brain, heart, liver, lung, kidney, Eye etc.)
    • Determination of fundamental PK parameters (Tmax, Cmax,
    • AUC, clearance, oral bioavailability, volume of distribution, etc.)
    • Blood brain barrier & PK-PD Evaluation

In vitro screens / Cell / Ex-vivo assays

  • Cytokine Release Assays (IL-1b, IL-6, IL-8, TNFα, IFNγ, etc.) from macrophage and T cells
  • Myeloperoxidase, Eosonophil peroxidase and nitric oxide
  • assays in monocyte-derived cell lines
  • Chemotaxis assays in primary thymocytes and T-cell lines
  • Kinase and STAT phosphorylation assays
  • Cytokine-induced IFN γ release in whole blood
    IKK/NF-kβ Assays
  • T cell proliferation assays
  • Incretin and Insulin Secretion Models; Adipogenesis and Adipolysis models; Apo B secretion model [Hepatocyte]; Fatty acid oxidation model [Skeletal muscles]; Membrane potential assays [myocytes, hepatocytes]